The March of Time: 8 March 1945




ANNOUNCER: TIME, the weekly news magazine, takes you to the news fronts of the 
world: Can Fascist Spain survive in a democratic Europe? The heroic and tragic 
story of an American guerrilla chief in the Philippines. And a personal 
meeting with the first U.S. Marine to return from Iwo Jima. Stand by for the 


VAN: Good evening, ladies and gentlemen. This is Westbrook Van Voorhis 
speaking for the editors of TIME Magazine. 

It is now the Allied Watch on the Rhine. 

U. S. civilians at home, remembering how we dealt with Italian civilians, and 
well aware of the doughboys' soft heart may well ask: How are we treating 
German civilians? Are we coddling them? A new answer and a firm one came this 
week in a cabled report from officers of the American Military Government of 
Neuss, first Rhine city to come under American control. In the Rathaus, or 
city council house, the U. S. captain in charge marches into the office of the 
Buergermeister, or Mayor of Neuss. 


MAYOR: Ach, good morning, Herr Captain! I am at your service. 

CAPTAIN: (TOUGH) O. K. You can continue as mayor of this town, but I'm the 
boss. Get that straight. 

MAYOR: Ja wohl. I shall cooperate. 

CAPTAIN: As long as you do, and as long as your people behave, okay. 
Otherwise, out you go. In the first place, all civilians will be confined to 
their homes until further notice. 

MAYOR: But Herr Captain, how can they? Where can 30 thousand people go? Half 
the homes in Neuss are in complete ruin! 

CAPTAIN: [I don't care where German civilians live.] They've got to stay off 
the streets so as not to get in the way of our military operations. My order 
will be obeyed. 



[MAYOR: (CAUTIOUSLY) Herr Captain . . . 

[CAPTAIN: Well, out with it, Buergermeister! Are your town cops helping my 
military police clear the streets as I told you? 

[MAYOR: Alas, Herr Captain, my police are prisoners of war, your prisoners. 
Apparently your soldiers rounded them up thinking they were German soldiers. 
Their uniforms are green gray . . . 

[CAPTAIN: If we've made a mistake, we'll release them, put them in civilian 
dress, and give them arm bands. But if a German has a uniform, it's better to 
throw him in a prisoner of war pen and investigate later.] 



DOCTOR: (VERY CAUTIOUS) If you please, Herr Captain, I am the sanitation 
official . . . Water and sanitation facilities have broken down completely, of 
course . . . 

CAPTAIN: Well, round up whatever German doctors there are, and let them take 
care of any civilians who get sick . . . 

DOCTOR: But your own medical corps . . . your own wonderful sanitary 
equipment . . . 

CAPTAIN: Not a chance, doc! I'll see that notices are posted where water is 
available; that it must be boiled before drinking. That's all we can do at 



MAN: But, Herr Captain! You do not understand. Meine frau she will have the 
baby any minute! Now your army doctors . . . I have read how they . . . 

CAPTAIN: Not in Germany. Go get a midwife or one of your German doctors and 
consider yourself lucky if you find one. It's your affair, not mine. 



CAPTAIN: What's the trouble now, Buergermeister? 

MAYOR: It is my people, Herr Captain. They stay off the streets, as you 
command. But they are hungry. I beg, I implore you to release emergency army 
rations to them! 

CAPTAIN: Look, Mayor. We got better use for our army rations. Collect whatever 
food there is in the shops that hasn't been destroyed. Then, gather the food 
your civilians have hoarded in their homes . . . 

MAYOR: Hoarding? Oh, nein . . .

CAPTAIN: And _sell_ it to these hungry people of yours. The money will go into 
a food fund that won't cost us a cent. Because we aren't putting out any. 

MAYOR: But you are already housing and feeding some civilians. 

CAPTAIN: Sure, we're feeding three thousand. They're Russians, Poles, French, 
Dutch, Belgians and a few Algerians we found here in Neuss. And we're going to 
keep on feeding 'em, until we can get 'em back to their homes. They're 
entitled to it. You're not! 

(MUSIC: IN .... ) 

VAN: That's the way American Military Governors handle German civilians. If 
you've been worrying about it, forget it. Worry about something better or 



VAN: This week a new war song is marching into American hearts: The Ballad of 
Rodger Young, written to honor all infantrymen in the name of one. Its author, 
Private First Class Frank Loesser, writer of "Praise the Lord and Pass the 
Ammunition" and many another topflight hit. The story of Private Rodger Young 
that led Composer Loesser to write what may well be the war's top song is told 
in LIFE magazine. 

VOICE: Rodger Young of Clyde, Ohio, was one of the smallest men in Company B 
of the 148th Regiment in the 37th Infantry Division. But he was a good 
soldier. How good was revealed in an incident that occurred just before the 
37th Division went into combat, for the first time, on New Georgia Island in 
the southwest Pacific, Sergeant Young approached his company commander. 

YOUNG: Sir, I have a request to make. 

OFFICER: Yes, Sergeant? 

YOUNG: I've been slightly deaf, sir, ever since I was in high school. When we 
were in training at Camp Shelby, sir, my ear trouble got worse. 

OFFICER: Having trouble now Sergeant? 

YOUNG: Yes, sir, worse than ever.

OFFICER: And you want a medical discharge? 

YOUNG: Oh, no, sir. I'm just afraid my poor hearing will interfere with my job 
as a squad leader. I may miss some important message, or some sound in the 
jungle. That'll be dangerous for the men under me. 

OFFICER: Then what _is_ your request, Sergeant? 

YOUNG: Sir. I want to be demoted to the rank of private. 


VAN: Soon thereafter the 37th Division landed on New Georgia, fought bitterly 
resisting Japs back through the jungle. Late one afternoon the platoon in 
which Rodger Young was fighting was ordered to withdraw a little for the 
night. The platoon suddenly was pinned down by intense fire from a Japanese 
machine gun concealed on higher ground only seventy-five yards away. 


SERGEANT: Hold it, you guys! Hold it! Anybody hit? 

YOUNG: I am. 

SERGEANT: Rodge. Hit bad? 


SERGEANT: Okay, you guys. Pull back. Keep low.

YOUNG: Hey, Sergeant! I got that machine gun spotted. I'm going after it. 

SERGEANT: Come back here, Young! 

YOUNG: (OFF) I'll get 'em! Stay where you are! 


SERGEANT: They hit him again! 

MAN: He's still throwin' grenades, though! 


MAN: He knocked the gun out! 

RIGBY: Yeah--but they got _him_! 


[VAN: The Commander of the 148th Infantry, Colonel Lawrence K. White, wrote to 
Private Rodger Young's mother: 

[WHITE: Private Young fought and gave his life in order that you and his other 
relatives and friends might continue to enjoy our American way of life. We are 
indeed proud to be members of Private Young's Regiment.] 

VAN: President Roosevelt gave Private Young posthumously the nation's highest 
award for heroism, the Medal of Honor. That is the story that led Composer 
Loesser to write the Ballad of Private Rodger Young, and, in honoring one 
hero, to honor all infantrymen. Here is the Ballad of Rodger Young. 


VAN: This week on the Rhine and across the vast arc of the Pacific, American 
commanders are making many bold decisions based on many different facts. All 
day long and all night long these facts pour in--reports from the battle 
lines, reports on supply and transportation conditions behind the fronts, 
intelligence reports about the enemy ahead. And back here on the home front, 
editors are having to do much the same kind of thinking . . . to help 
Americans understand the complicated, everchanging current of the week's news. 
All this week, for example, the editors of TIME, The Weekly Newsmagazine, have 
been receiving reports from their correspondents on every battlefront of this 
war. For instance, there are five TIME and LIFE men on the Western Front--men 
like Senior Editor Sidney Olson, whose account of the Ninth Army's push to the 
Rhine you can read in TIME this week. And in the Pacific theater there is 
Teddy White, soon to take off again for the Burma front. There is Bill Gray in 
Manila and Robert Sherrod and Gene Smith on bloody Iwo Jima. From their 
reports and those of other TIME correspondents all over the world, TIME's 
editors write into TIME Magazine one clear, complete story of the week's news
--a story that makes the war news really make sense. And that is just one of 
the reasons why more than a million busy, well-informed American families now 
turn to TIME--this week and every week. 

VAN: War must always mean separation of fighting men from their loved ones. 
But one of the most tragic romances of this war concerns a young American 
officer in the Philippines and his sweetheart. It is the story of Major 
Bernard "Andy" Anderson, the greatest leader of Filipino Guerrillas, and it 
was cabled this week by TIME and LIFE correspondent Carl Mydans. A few days 
after U. S. troops had pushed into Manila into the American lines east of the 
Philippine Capital, came a man in a tattered and dusty uniform. He had lines
on his face, and more years than his age. He was escorted to a nearby command 


ANDY: Major Anderson reporting, sir. 

COLONEL: Not Andy Anderson! 

ANDY: Yes, sir. United States Armed Forces in the Far East.

COLONEL: (BE SURE TO SMILE) Well, Major, if I wanted fifty thousand pesos, I 
could turn you over to the enemy. 

ANDY: (SMILE) Yes, sir, I understand there is a price on my head. But all I 
care about right now is to get to Manila. 

COLONEL: I'm sure we can arrange that, Major. 

ANDY: You see, I'm going back to Betty Lou. 

COLONEL: Betty Lou?

ANDY: My fiancee.


ANDY: It's been a long time. It's been Betty Lou who kept me going when things 
got so tough in the hills I thought I was reaching the end. When the Japs were 
closing in and there was no food and you felt like this is it, I thought of 
Betty Lou and kept going. 

COLONEL: (SOFTLY) We'll get you to Betty Lou, Major . . . 

ANDY: I haven't seen her for more than three years, sir. It was New Year's day 
Nineteen Forty-two in Manila. I'll never forget it. It was early, very early 
in the morning. Her father, Captain Gewald, had already left for Bataan. 
(FADE) I was with her in her mother's apartment . . . 

BETTY LOU: Oh, darling, after you've gone, I'll think of so much we should 
have said. 

ANDY: I know, Betty Lou, there's so much and so little to say. Here we were to 
have been married on January 10, but that will have to wait, now, until I come 


ANDY: (UP) What is it? Oh, hello, Bert. 


PETTIT: (OFF) Andy! Come on! We've got to go now. We're going to blow up the 
last bridge to Bataan. 

ANDY: (UP) I'll be right with you, Bert. (LOW) Goodbye, Betty Lou. We'll be 
back as soon as possible. 

BETTY LOU: Yes, darling, I'll be here. I'll be waiting for you. 


ANDY: Betty Lou and her mother stayed behind in Manila waiting for the 
Japanese. For them, it meant Santo Tomas internment camp. After the fall of 
Bataan and Corregidor, Bert Pettit and I managed to escape to the mountains. 
We planned to go on to Mindanao and Australia, but everywhere it was the same. 
Filipinos flocked around us. 


FILIPINO I: You not going to leave us? 

PETTIT: Yes, I'm sorry, but Lieutenant Anderson and I have to leave Luzon. 

FILIPINO I: No, no! 

ANDY: We'll come back with MacArthur! 

FILIPINO II: You stay, please. You tell us what you want us to do. 

FILIPINO I: We want to fight the Japans. 

PETTIT: How about it, Andy? 

ANDY: Bert, it looks like maybe we got a job to do here. 

PETTIT: Yeah, it looks that way. All right, you guys, but understand this: 
There's no pay, no allowance. Any man who joins up does so for one reason and 
one reason only--love of his country. (APPROVALS) Okay. 

ANDY: You know, Bert, I'm glad we're staying. I'll be closer to Betty Lou. 


ANDY: In three years, not one man backed out on us. It wasn't long before we 
had word from General MacArthur: 

MACARTHUR: Hit the enemy wherever he can be hit. Destroy his communication 
lines, his dumps, harass him so he cannot move without protective strength! 


ANDY: Our problem was not in finding men. It was sorting the best out of the 
endless stream of volunteers. When our funds ran out, we were overwhelmed by 
offerings from Filipinos. They fed and clothed us. At first, I kept in regular 
touch with Betty Lou in Santo Tomas camp. And always, I could hear her say: 

BETTY LOU: (FILTER) Yes, darling. I'll be here. I'll be waiting for you. 

ANDY: Later, I had to stop writing for fear it might mean her life. Besides, 
we were always on the move. We now had hundreds of men and our chief shortage 
was arms. Two men, then three, were assigned to every pistol, every rifle, 
every machine gun, so that if one man was killed, another could carry on. Of 
news from outside, we heard nothing. The guerrillas would ask me: 

FILIPINO I: When are the Americans coming back? 

ANDY: I don't know, son. Honestly, I don't know. 

FILIPINO II: When the Americans do come back, sir, will we be free? 

ANDY: That will be up to you Filipinos. The problem now is to kill Japs. 


ANDY: Finally, in 1944, we made contact with guerrilla forces on Mindanao and 
Samar, and we became part of the United States Armed Forces in the Far East. 
Two Filipino radiomen arrived with full equipment. Supplies and men began to 
come in. Our orders were to avoid combat with the Japs that might endanger the 
safety of the people. But on January 6, three days before the Lingayen 
landings, a new order came through the island radio network: 

VOICE: (FILTER) Now is the time for maximum violence against the enemy. 



ANDY: For three years, my men had trained for this moment. Bridges were blown 
up. Railroads were cut. Jap units were cut off, annihilated. My job was done. 
Now I could look forward to Manila and to Betty Lou: 

BETTY LOU: (FILTER) Yes, darling, I'll be here. I'll be waiting for you. 



COLONEL: This way, Major.

ANDY: Three years. I wonder how she'll look. It's been a long time.

COLONEL: Yes, and a horrible time for everybody in the prison. You'd best be 
prepared for . . . . 

ANDY: I understand, Colonel.


VOICE: (FADING IN) Yes, Colonel? 

COLONEL: This is Major Anderson. (AD LIBS) We're inquiring for a Miss--

ANDY: Betty Lou Gewald. Tell her Andy's back.

VOICE: I'm sorry, Major Anderson. 

ANDY: Don't be sorry, fella. Just take me to her.

VOICE: Miss Gewald died two weeks ago.


VAN: In Manila, Carl Mydans cabled, there are big pennants welcoming Major 
Anderson, greatest of guerrillas. As Andy walks down the streets Filipinos 
crowd about him, show off their babies named in his honor. But one welcoming 
face is missing, the thought of which sustained him for more than three years, 
brought him back to Manila. 

Betty Lou is not there. 


VAN: Here tonight at the March of Time's New York microphone is the first 
United States Marine to return home from Iwo Jima. His name: Marine Gunner 
Paul White. As combat photographic officer he has participated in D Day 
landings on three of the greatest Marine Corps amphibious operations in the 
Pacific, and at Iwo Jima, working under Commander McLain, he was attached to 
the staff of Task Force Commander Vice Admiral Richmond Kelly Turner and 
Lieutenant General Holland M. Smith, tough, able commander of the Marines' 
toughest landings. Gunner Paul White! 

WHITE: During D Day I spent most of the time in a small rocket-firing ship 
very close in shore, to coordinate the work of several teams of photographers. 
At dusk of D Day I saw one of the unforgettable sights of the war. The sun was 
setting on the other side of the island from us, which threw everything into 
sharp black relief. At our left was the volcano mountain Surabachi, which we 
knew was honeycombed with caves filled with Japs and guns. We went in at Iwo 
Jima with our eyes open. Every man who hit the beach knew as much of what to 
expect as our top commanding officers. We could see the black shapes of 
several of our tanks crawling up the slope of the mountain. In front of each 
one were the figures of four or five Marines, and in back of each, perhaps ten 
more. While they were advancing, our Navy ships were firing at the mouths of 
the caves, hoping to seal them up. But the Japs kept firing. Then I saw our 
first tank take a direct hit and burst into flame. We saw silhouetted figures 
hurled into the air by the explosion. Marines around the tank hit the dirt, 
then got up and moved ahead. 

Then another tank was hit. I saw the silhouette of one man bend down to pick 
up a fallen comrade. But he couldn't pick him up alone. Another Marine came to 
help him. Then, very slowly, the three men came down the slope and disappeared 
into the darkness. That entire sight, in sharp black relief lit up only by gun 
flashes, hit me harder than anything I have ever seen. On shore for the next 
nine days the Marines fought slowly ahead through the toughest fighting they 
have ever faced. Iwo Jima is not like other islands we have taken, where we 
have been able to secure some territory and hold it safely after a few days. 
Iwo Jima is so small that even four days after D Day, every inch of the part 
we held was still under Japanese shell and mortar fire. The mortar fire 
especially inflicts horrible wounds. In spite of that, our wounded were 
evacuated with wonderful speed, by ambulance jeep from the fighting lines and 
by small boats out to the hospital ships. If civilian nurses could have been 
with me when I went alongside a navy hospital ship, and took a look at the 
hundreds of bleeding broken bodies waiting to be lifted aboard, the Navy 
wouldn't have to take our precious time and personnel to do recruiting. In 
battle when we are not doing our own jobs we pitch in on anything else we can 
find. We helped carry wounded, and I took messages back and forth between the 
fighting areas and the ships offshore. The worst of that was having to report 
the deaths of men who had been my friends. Compared to all the other shows 
I've seen, this one makes the others seem almost like rehearsals. 

It is more intense, more explosive. In the eight or nine days I was there, 
there wasn't a letup. The whole thing is close-in, pointblank firing by heavy 
weapons. On an island only five miles long by two and a half miles wide, how 
could it be anything else? It is like getting caught inside an arsenal that's 
blowing up in every direction. On the night of D Day plus three, we heard a 
Japanese broadcast ordering the Japs on Iwo Jima to annihilate ten Marines 
each before they died. The score to date is the price of seven dead Japs for 
every one dead Marine. 

VAN: Thank you, Gunner Paul White. 


VAN: This week, in Mexico City, the Inter American Conference is ending. Its 
prime accomplishment, the Declaration of Chapultepec, uniting twenty North, 
Central and South American republics against aggression from within and from 
without. One little noted meaning of this Declaration: It marks the failure of 
Fascist Spain under General Francisco Franco to win Latin American republics 
to a Spanish Fascist ideology. And, while Fascism fails in the west, in 
Europe, too, General Franco's friends are growing weaker. Spain, scene of the 
first military victory for Fascism in Europe, may soon be the last openly 
Fascist country in Europe. Therefore shrewd observers are asking these 
questions: Which will come first: peace in Europe or revolution in Spain? And 
will the overthrow of Franco really solve Spain's internal problems? 


VAN: Newest, most comprehensive report on Spain today appears in the current 
issue of TIME'S sister magazine FORTUNE, based on first-hand material gathered 
by Gabriel Javsicas. Its title: "Spain--Unfinished Business." Its author: 
Henry Hart. Mr. Hart. 

HART: Spain was the scene of the bloodiest civil war in modern history. It 
lasted from 1936 to 1939, cost a million lives, and incapacitated a million 
more, ended in victory for the Fascist rebels under Franco and a single 
Fascist political party, the Falange. Yet Franco is now certain of only one 
thing, that the people are waiting to get rid of him. On the surface Spain 
appears to have recovered somewhat from her civil war. There has been some 
revival of Spanish industry. 

VOICE I: Most important cause of that revival: 160 million dollars poured into 
Spain by the American and British governments since 1941. 

VOICE II: Its purpose: To buy up wolfram, the ore of tungsten, indispensable 
in war material, and prevent the Germans from getting it through conquered 

HART: But the liberation of France last summer ended the Allied need for 
buying Spanish wolfram. Thus, Franco has lost his chief economic support. Now 
goods are getting scarcer. Prices are rising continuously. The masses of Spain 
wait grimly for the disintegration of the Falange, which has totally 
controlled Spain for six years. 

VOICE I: There is no freedom of press, religion or public assembly. Four 
different kinds of secret police and armed guards spy on the populace. 

VOICE II: All employment depends on the Falange, which supervises or manages 
all production and distribution, 

VOICE III: The Falange rules by martial law!


HART: Early in its regime the Falange tried to win the Spanish people over by 
a grandiose program of social and economic reform. [One of its main features--
the export of Falange ideology to Spanish-speaking people elsewhere in the 
world--is a failure in Latin America. The workers, who were promised new 
rights, are instead kept in abysmal poverty by rigorous wage ceilings in the 
face of fantastically rising prices.] But the ten-year plan of 
industrialization is still only a blueprint. For example: 

VOICE I: Out of four thousand kilometers of railroad scheduled to be 
electrified, only fourteen have been completed. 

VOICE II: The new factories envisaged to make synthetic rubber, nitrates, 
gasoline and oil, do not exist. 

VOICE III: The proposal to break up the great private estates has resulted in 
the resettlement of only six hundred families, at a cost of more than eighteen 
thousand dollars per family! 


HART: The real explanation of Spain's food shortage is the business activity 
of the Falange itself, which creates three different prices on food--all black 

VOICE I: Farmers and land owners are compelled to sell their produce to 
government syndicates, at ceiling prices, but actually sell most on the black 

VOICE II: The government syndicates in turn sell a great deal of produce on 
their own black market. 

VOICE III: The Army contributes bread to still a third black market, because 
it sells its surplus at illegal prices. 

HART: The result is that today the Spanish people get from one-fourth to one-
half the minimum number of calories they need. As one Spaniard said: 

SPANIARD I: They spilled so much blood to give us this!

HART: Private business men are constantly protesting, with amazing frankness, 
against the arbitrary acts, regulations and corruption of Falange officials. 
For example: in the office of the transport ministry: 

SHIPPER: Your new decree is graft! It is our ruin! 

SECRETARY: But senor, you are free to join the new syndicate. 

SHIPPER: Hombre! Much good that will do us! Our profits will go to the 
syndicate, to our competitors, and to the minister who signed this decree! 

HART: In Spain such talk is a daily occurrence because so few of the people, 
even in the Falange itself, really believe in the Franco regime. One of the 
current jokes goes like this: 

SPANIARD I: Hey, Gonzales, who is the greatest general in Spain today? 

SPANIARD II: It is not General Franco. It is General Protest. 


[HART: The top army officers have become hostile to the Falange. And finally, 
the Church has begun to oppose it. These are the facts about the Catholic 
Church in Spain: 

[VOICE I: Before the civil war, only ten to fifteen per cent of the population 
were active Catholics. 

[VOICE II: During the civil war, the Spanish Church supported Franco, which 
alienated many of those who had remained faithful. 

[HART: Soon after coming to power, Franco helped the church by restoring 
property and schools to the religious orders. But he has now alienated the 
church by dissolving Catholic unions and, through Fascist youth organizations, 
loosened the hold of the church over the young.] 


HART: The present political situation was summed up for Fortune Magazine by 
Franco's hard-boiled, cynical Minister of Industry and Commerce, Demetrio 

CARCELLER: The monarchy gave us bad government and took recourse to 
dictatorship under Primo de Rivera. Then the Republic was rotten. We, of 
course, are no good, either. The fellows who come after us will be just as 
bad. Look at the Spaniards in exile. All of them are agreed only on the 
obvious: They don't like us. No one in Spain likes us, either. But no one can 
agree on what they want instead of us. 


HART: In spite of that cynical estimate all Spanish political leaders want to 
avoid another civil war. They want a parliamentary government free of the use 
of force. But whoever follows Franco will have to give land to the peasants in 
the South, and develop industry in the North. Until that happens, Spain will 
continue to be the most explosive element in Western Europe. 

VAN: Thank you, Henry Hart, for that report on Franco Spain. 

VAN: Time Marches On! 


VOICE: Over this same network every afternoon at 4 o'clock Eastern War Time, 
listen to TIME VIEWS THE NEWS, another program prepared by the editors and 
correspondents of TIME magazine. And next Thursday evening, at this same time, 
listen again to the MARCH OF TIME. 



Originally broadcast: 8 March 1945